Last edited by Meztigal
Monday, April 27, 2020 | History

4 edition of Human variability in response to chemical exposures found in the catalog.

Human variability in response to chemical exposures

measures, modeling, and risk assessment

by

  • 226 Want to read
  • 24 Currently reading

Published by CRC Press, ILSI Press in Boca Raton, Washington, D.C .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Health risk assessment.,
  • Biochemical variation.,
  • Human beings -- Variation.,
  • Human genetics -- Variation.,
  • Toxicology.,
  • Environmental toxicology.,
  • Risk Assessment -- congresses.,
  • Environmental Exposure -- adverse effects -- congresses.,
  • Disease Susceptibility -- epidemiology -- congresses.,
  • Toxicity Tests -- congresses.,
  • Epidemiologic Factors -- congresses.,
  • Biological Markers -- congresses.

  • Edition Notes

    Statementedited by David A. Neumann, Carole A. Kimmel.
    Genrecongresses.
    ContributionsNeumann, David A., Kimmel, Carole A., International Life Sciences Institute.
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsRA427.3 .H86 1998
    The Physical Object
    Pagination257 p. :
    Number of Pages257
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL344639M
    ISBN 100849328055, 1578810000
    LC Control Number98003610

    @article{osti_, title = {Methods for estimating risk of chemical injury: human and non-human biota and ecosystems}, author = {Vouk, V.B. and Butler, G.C. and Hoel, D.G. and Peakall, D.B.}, abstractNote = {This book is a summary of the work conducted during the second workshop by the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals held at the Instituto .   Exposure assessment provides key input to the process of source-exposure-dose-response-risk characterization that addresses questions concerning the degree to which environmental contaminants pose risks to human and/or ecological health (NRC, , ; USEPA, a).A variety of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) models and methods may be used to characterize uncertainty or Cited by: Typical human exposures to most chemical carcinogens present in the environment occur at levels far below those at which risks can be directly measured Low dose extrapolation We can only make an educated guess about the shape of the dose-response curve for carcinogens or threshold toxicants in the range below our empirical data.


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Human variability in response to chemical exposures Download PDF EPUB FB2

And for those interested in toxic effects of chemicals on humans, Human Variability in Response to Chemical Exposures: Measures, Modeling, and Risk Assessment recognizes and addresses the increasing awareness that individual biological differences be reflected when assessing human health risks associated with exposure to by: 9.

Summary and for those interested in toxic effects of chemicals on humans, Human Variability in Response to Chemical Exposures: Measures, Modeling, and Risk Assessment recognizes and addresses the increasing awareness that individual biological differences be reflected when assessing human health risks associated with exposure to chemicals.

Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Human Variability in Response to Chemical Exposures: Measures, Modeling and Risk Assessment by David A. Eckerman (, Hardcover) at the best online prices at eBay. Free shipping for many products. Book Description. and for those interested in toxic effects of chemicals on humans, Human Variability in Response to Chemical Exposures: Measures, Modeling, and Risk Assessment recognizes and addresses the increasing awareness that individual biological differences be reflected when assessing human health risks associated with exposure to chemicals.

Get this from a library. Human variability in response to chemical exposures: measures, modeling, and risk assessment. [David A Neumann; Carole A Kimmel; International Life Sciences Institute.;] -- This book, a compilation of eight original manuscripts commissioned by the ILSI Risk Science Institute, addresses the increasing awareness that individual biological differences be reflected when.

New data and methods have been developed that are designed to improve estimation of the quantitative variability in human response to environmental chemical exposures.

Variability in human response to an agent stems in part from differences in the underlying exposures that contribute to a given disease response prevalence within the population. A person’s internal “chemical environment” may be as important for possible disease associations as exposures to the variety of chemicals in the external Cited by: Strategies for assessing human variability in susceptibility, and using variability to infer human risks Human variability in response to chemical exposure: Measures, modeling, and risk assessment.

Abstract. Individuals differ in their response to environmental exposures. In the following, we describe examples and paradigms of studying heritable differences in response to exposure—commonly known as “gene–environment interaction” or “ecogenetics”—and their relation to disease etiology and by: 2.

Chemical Exposures Measures, Modeling, And Risk Assessment, Read Online Human Variability In Response To Chemical Exposures Measures, Modeling, And Risk Assessment E-Books, Read Human Variability In Response To Chemical Exposures Measures, Modeling, And Risk Assessment Book Free, Read Human Variability In Response To Chemical Exposures Measures.

Get this from a library. Human variability in response to chemical exposures: measures, modeling, and risk assessment. [David A Neumann; Carole A Kimmel; International Life Sciences Institute.;] -- "And for those interested in toxic effects of chemicals on humans, Human Variability in Response to Chemical Exposures: Measures, Modeling, and Risk Assessment recognizes and addresses the.

As a rule, humans vary in their responses to environmental factors because of variability in their genes and their genes’ epigenetic modification.

Consequently, the same level of exposure to a chemical compound may give rise to different biologic effects in different individuals. For example, severe life-threatening toxicities can occur in some individuals treated with irinotecan, an. Introduction. The response of individual humans to hazardous exposures can vary significantly and this variability is thought to underlie individual predispositions to to diseases and/or sensitivity to toxic exposures ().While basic biological mechanisms pertinent to humans are being studied in laboratory animals, the variability of human responses to chemicals, including drugs and Author: Daria Filonov, Raymond Tice, Ruiyan Luo, Chad Grotegut, Michael J.

Van Kanegan, John W. Ludlow, Dora. This book provides a concise, yet comprehensive overview of the many facets relating to human health risk assessments in relation to chemical exposure problems.

It presents some very important tools and methodologies that can be used to address chemical exposure and public health risk management problems in a consistent, efficient, and cost. Apache/ (Ubuntu) Server at Port evaluate exposures, assess dose-response, and characterize risks posed by multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors to human health.

Task Incorporating Susceptibility Information into CRA: This task will apply emerging molecular data (e.g., epigenetic and genetic) to inform susceptibility and variability in response to environmental.

Ricardo Ochoa, in Fundamentals of Toxicologic Pathology (Third Edition), Dose–Response Assessment. Dose–response assessment is a critical element of hazard characterization. Nonclinical toxicity studies are designed to evaluate the conditions under which exposure to the test article might induce an effect, and particularly an adverse effect (i.e., “toxicity”).

If, at the chosen response level, chemical 2 has a dose of 3 mg/kg-day and the index chemical has a dose of 2 mg/kg-day, the potency of chemical 2 is (2/3). If chemical 3 has a dose of mg/kg-day at the predefined response level, its potency would be (2/).Author: John C.

Lipscomb, Nikki Maples-Reynolds, Moiz Mumtaz. Susceptibility and Variability in Human Response to Chemical Exposure Request for Applications closing date: Septem View RFA Text. Each day, people everywhere are exposed to chemicals - in their food, in the water they drink, and in the air they breathe.

Some exposures are the result of accidents, disasters, or intentional attempts to cause harm. The environmental toxicology and epidemiology staff of the Health Studies Branch of CDC’s National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) specializes in studying. %: David A. Eckerman: Human Variability in Response to Chemical Exposures Measures, Modeling, and Risk Assessment (ebook) (ISBN: )in english, Publisher: CRC Press, first edition, also as e-book.

Show only this edition. BACKGROUND: Characterizing variability in the extent and nature of responses to environmental exposures is a critical aspect of human health risk assessment.

OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to explore how next-generation human health risk assessments may better characterize variability in the context of the conceptual framework for the source-to. The current demand for human health assessments of individual chemicals and chemical mixtures is not being fully met.

Vision Statement: The HHRA research program will generate timely, credible human health. assessments of individual chemicals and chemical mixtures to support priority EPA risk. and guidance used in different countries to assess health risks from acute chemical releases; and needs for new information, tools, guidance andexpertise to enable the valid rapid health risk of acute chemical exposures.

According to the results, there is an obvious variability in. The classic model human dose‐response curve for a direct acting cytotoxic chemical such as an irritant, solvent or pesticide has been presented. there is substantial host variability in response to these environments, which is also not well understood or predictable.

Symptoms or signs related to chemical exposures at levels tolerated Author: Mark R. Cullen. Variability refers to the individual-to-individual differences in quantities associated with predicted risk. For example, actual human exposures vary according to individual differences in location, breathing rates, food consumption, activity patterns, and so forth.

An example of progress that moves toward this goal is EPAâ s draft risk assessment of trichloroethylene (EPA ; NRC ), which considers how differences in metabolism, disease, and other factors contribute to human variability in response to exposures.

CONCLUSION: In view of these problems, we recommend caution in the use of HVD modeling as a general approach to estimating low-dose risks from human exposures to toxic chemicals. KEY WORDS: dose--response model, human variability distribution, log-normal distribution, low-dose risk, risk assessment, threshold distribution.

Chemical exposures have been linked to many recognized public health problems including cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and obesity. Workers in industrial and agricultural settings, and socially disadvantaged populations, face disproportionately greater chemical exposures.

Moreover, sensitive subpopulations. Acute Exposures and Rapid Response. Links provided below are designed to quickly provide chemical information for acute exposure. Sites listed on this page below contain links to information sources for specific chemicals including exposure guidelines, physical and chemical properties, environmental fate and transport, and comprehensive on-line databases of toxicology and epidemiology literature.

Background & Purpose: The workshop series is continuing and expanding upon the discussion set forth by Science and Decisions: Advancement of Risk Assessment (); these meetings are conducted under the aegis of the Alliance for Risk Assessment (ARA), a broad-based non-profit, government and NGO first phase of the workshop series was three workshops over the course of about a year.

Characterization of Chemical Contaminants, 2 Human Exposures and Dosimetry, 7 Chemical Exposures and Dose to Target Tissues, 8 Concentration of Toxic Chemicals in Human Microenvironments, 9 Inhalation Exposures and Respiratory Tract Effects, 12 Ingestion Exposures and Gastrointestinal Tract Effects, Exposure assessment — measurement or estimation of the intensity, frequency, and duration of human exposures to agents.

Risk characterization — estimation of the incidence of health effects under the various conditions of human exposure. Once risks are characterized in step 4, the process of risk management begins (Figure 2). variability more explicitly in exposure assessment and dose-response relationships.

An example of progress towards this goal is EPA’s draft risk assessment of trichloroethylene, which considers how differences in metabolism, disease, and other factors contribute.

Committee report – July including the challenge in distinguishing the dose response at low chemical exposures and the potential transgenerational effects, which were identified as concerns for EDCs but are also ongoing challenges with non-endocrine endpoints. (NASEM, ), characterizing human variability in hazard and.

The nature of environment exposures to chemicals and the population variability in response make it difficult to determine population risk from traditional epidemiological studies (Spear, ). This has given rise to attempt to predict risk from environmental transformation and transport, exposure mechanisms, and biological response by: 5.

I. Dose-Response & NOAELs: Most biological effects, whether adverse or not, are the consequence of a cascade of biochemical reactions initiated when chemical agents (referred to by pharmacologists and toxicologists generically as effectors, agonists or ligands) bind to effect-specific macromolecular receptors usually distributed on cell surfaces.

Uncertainty factor of 30 accounts for extrapolation form a LOAEL to a NOAEL (10) and for human variability (3). Further review of study data indicate that the study population may have had some underlying disease and possible other exposures to Chemical Y, resulting in a possible overestimation of the reported effect level.

23 differences and human variability. 24 2) Fitting a model(s) to the dose–response data for all groups in order to define the 25 relationship in the observed range; the model can then be used to define the exposure 26 associated with a prespecified level of response.

This value can then be used as the PODFile Size: KB. Non-persistent chemicals, such as phthalates, environmental phenols, organophosphate pesticides, and others, are challenging to study because of their ubiquity in the environment, diverse exposure routes, and high temporal variability of biomarkers.

Nonetheless, there is interest in understanding how gestational exposure to these chemicals may affect fetal growth, as perturbations Cited by: 3. Responses to toxic chemicals may differ among individuals because of the physiological variability that is present in the human population.

For example, an individual may be more likely to experience an adverse health effect after exposure to a toxic chemical because of a reduced ability to metabolize that compound. Chemical Response.levels of human intake for chemicals introduced into food. •As long as human exposures to a chemical did not exceed the ADI, the legal requirement of practical certainty of no harm would be satisfied.

This use of the ADI and the zero-tolerance for carcinogens were consistent with new food law requirements.The National Research Council (NRC) published “Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment” in response to an EPA request for recommendations for near term ( years) and longer term ( years) improvements in how the Agency conducts human health risk assessments.

The NRC report, published in Decemberis a forward-looking.